Kurkuma Superfood - Ihr unabhängiger Ratgeber

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Kurkuma und Curcumin

Es gibt unzählige wissenschaftliche Studien und Veröffentlichungen rund um die medizinische und gesundheitliche Wirkung von Kurkuma (Curcuma longa) und Curcumin. Hier wird eine Auswahl dargestellt, um Ihnen einen Endruck zur wissenschaftlichen Fundierung der Heilwirkung von Kurkuma zu geben. Hier finden Sie anwendbare Informationen rund um Kurkuma.

Allgemeine heilende Eigenschaften von Curcumin (Kurkuma, Curcuma)

  • Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL. Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(2):126-31. 2006. PMID:17044766. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17044766
  • Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Dover Publications, New York. 1971.
  • Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988. 1988. PMID:15220.
  • Curcumin: a natural product of biological importance. Asif Nawaz, Gul Majid Khan, Abid Hussain, Akhlaq Ahmad, Arshad Khan andMuhammad safdar.
  • Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:1-75. Curcumin: the Indian solid gold. Aggarwal BB, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569205
  • Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Feb;30(2):85-94. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2008.11.002. Epub 2008 Dec 26. Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets. Aggarwal BB, Sung B. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110321
  • Ahsan H, Parveen N, Khan NU, Hadi SM. Pro-oxidant, anti-oxidant and cleavage activities on DNA of curcumin and its derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Chem Biol Interact 1999 Jul 1;121(2):161-75. 1999. PMID:7690.
  • J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan;27(1):19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9. „Spicing up“ of the immune system by curcumin. Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB.
  • Diskutierte Heilwirkungen der Inhaltsstoffe von Curcuma – was ist evidenzbasiert? Sunita Chhatwal 2014. BA Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg, Fakultät Life Science https://edoc.sub.uni-hamburg.de/haw/volltexte/2015/2852/pdf/Sunita_Chhatwal_BA.pdf
  • Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:425-51. Curcumin and autoimmune disease. Bright JJ.
  • Olszewska M, Glowacki R, Wolbis M, Bald E. Quantitative determination of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Prunus spinosa L. Acta Pol Pharm 2001 May-2001 Jun 30;58(3):199-203. 2001. PMID:16270.
  • Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986. 1986. PMID:15210.
  • Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia. Macmillan, New York. 1996.
  • Wuthi-udomler M, Grisanapan W, Luanratana O, Caichompoo W. Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa grown in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2000;31 Suppl 1:178-82. 2000. PMID:16270.
  • Shah BH, Nawaz Z, Pertani SA, et al. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, a food spice from turmeric, on platelet- activating factor- and arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane formation and Ca2+ signa. Biochem Pharmacol 1999 Oct 1;58(7):1167-72. 1999. PMID:7670.
  • Asai A, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T. Antioxidative effects of turmeric, rosemary and capsicum extracts on membrane phospholipid peroxidation and liver lipid metabolism in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Dec;63(12):2118-22. 1999. PMID:7550.
  • Nagabhushan M, Amonkar AJ, Bhide SV. In vitro antimutagenicity of curcumin against environmental mutagens. Food Chem Toxicol. 1987 Jul;25(7):545-7. 1987. PMID:3623345.
  • Calabrese V, et. al. Paper on curcumin’s induction of hemeoxygenase-1. Presented at the annual conference of the American Physiological Society, held April 17-21, 2004, Washington, D.C. 2004.
  • Kang BY, Song YJ, Kim KM et al. Curcumin inhibits Th1 cytokine profile in CD4+ T cells by suppressing interleukin-12 production in macrophages. Br J Pharmacol 1999 Sep;128(2):380-4. 1999.
  • Nagabhushan M, Nair UJ, Amonkar AJ, D’Souza AV, Bhide SV. Curcumins as inhibitors of nitrosation in vitro. Mutat Res. 1988 Nov;202(1):163-9. 1988. PMID:3054526.
  • Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Jul;124(6):1029-40. Effect of curcumin on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chen HW, Huang HC.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Curcumin und Alzheimer

    • Balasubramanian K. Molecular Orbital Basis for Yellow Curry Spice Curcumin’s Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54 (10), 3512 -3520, 2006. 10.1021/jf0603533 S0021-8561(06)00353-0, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf0603533
    • Calabrese V, Butterfield DA, Stella AM. Nutritional antioxidants and the heme oxygenase pathway of stress tolerance: novel targets for neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s disease. Ital J Biochem. 2003 Dec;52(4):177-81. 2003.
    • Fiala M, Lin J, Ringman J, Kermani-Arab V, Tsao G, Patel A, Lossinsky AS, Graves MC, Gustavson A, Sayre J, Sofroni E, Suarez T, Chiappelli F, Bernard G. Ineffective phagocytosis of amyloid-beta by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2005 Jun;7(3):221-32; discussion 255-62. 2005. PMID:16006665. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/88z6c8d9
    • Fiala M, Liu PT, Espinosa-Jeffrey A, Rosenthal MJ, Bernard G, Ringman JM, Sayre J, Zhang L, Zaghi J, Dejbakhsh S, Chiang B, Hui J, Mahanian M, Baghaee A, Hong P, Cashman J. Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT-III and Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer’s disease patients are improved by bisdemethoxycurcumin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 31;104(31):12849-54. 2007. PMID:17652175.
    • Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, et al. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci 2001 Nov 1;21(21):8370-7. 2001. PMID:16240.
    • Parfk SY, Kim DS. Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protects cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzherimer’s disease. J Nat Prod 2002 Sep;65(9):1227-31. 2002.
    • Zhang L, Fiala M, Cashman J, Sayre J, Espinosa A, Mahanian M, Zaghi J, Badmaev V, Graves MC, Bernard G, Rosenthal M. Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Sep;10(1):1-7. 2006. PMID:16988474.
  • Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, Chen PP, Kayed R, Glabe CG, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. Curcumin inhibits formation of Abeta oligomers and fibrils and binds plaques and reduces amyloid in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 2004. PMID:15590663.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Cholesterin und Fettverdauung

    • Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1994 May;59(5):995-9. 1994. PMID:16240.
    • Kang BY, Chung SW, Chung W et al. Inhibition of interleukin-12 production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage by curcumin. Eur J Pharmacol 1999 Nov;384(2-3):191-5. 1999.
    • Asai A, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T. Antioxidative effects of turmeric, rosemary and capsicum extracts on membrane phospholipid peroxidation and liver lipid metabolism in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Dec;63(12):2118-22. 1999. PMID:7550.
    • Soni KB, Kuttan R. Effect of oral curcumin administration on serum peroxides and cholesterol levels in human volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992 Oct;36(4):273-5. 1992. PMID:1291482.
  • Peschel D, Koerting R, Nass N. Curcumin induces changes in expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Feb;18(2):113-9. Epub 2006 May 18. 2007. PMID:16713233.
  • Nutr Res. 2014 Oct;34(10):886-93. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.09.001. Epub 2014 Sep 16. Curcumin attenuates adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Um MY, Hwang KH, Choi WH, Ahn J, Jung CH, Ha TY.
  • Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2009 Nov;90(1-2):13-20. Doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins. 2009.06.005. Epub 2009 Jun 21. Curcumin prevents the oxidation and lipid modification of LDL and its inhibition of prostacyclin generation by endothelial cells in culture. Mahfouz MM, Zhou SQ, Kummerow FA.
  • Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008 May;29(5):555-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2008.00783.x. Curcumin inhibits cellular cholesterol accumulation by regulating SREBP-1/caveolin-1 signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. Yuan HY, Kuang SY, Zheng X, Ling HY, Yang YB, Yan PK, Li K, Liao DF.Darmerkrankungen
  • Salh B, Assi K, Templeman V, Parhar K, Owen D, Gomez-Munoz A, Jacobson K. Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. Jul;285(1):G235-43. Epub 2003 Mar 13. 2003. PMID:12637253.
  • Planta Med. 2013 Jan;79(2):102-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1328057. Epub 2012 Dec 18. Curcumin improves TNBS-induced colitis in rats by inhibiting IL-27 expression via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Zeng Z1, Zhan L, Liao H, Chen L, Lv X.
  • Feng, D., Ohlsson, L., & Duan, R.-D. (2010). Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression. Lipids in Health and Disease, 9, 40. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/43200549_Curcumin_inhibits_cholesterol_uptake_in_Caco-2_cells_by_down-regulation_of_NPC1L1_expression

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Diabetes

  • Diabetes Care. 2012 Nov;35(11):2121-7. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0116. Epub 2012 Jul 6. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Chuengsamarn S1, Rattanamongkolgul S, Luechapudiporn R, Phisalaphong C, Jirawatnotai S.
  • Curcumin is beneficial for improving Type 2 diabetes complications and assists in preventing oxidative stress and inflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar 27.
  • Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:636053. doi: 10.1155/2013/636053. Epub 2013 Nov 24. Curcumin and diabetes: a systematic review.Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, Liu JL
  • Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Aug;166(8):2209-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01959.x. Curcumin ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus – insights into its mechanisms of action. Stefanska B.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Entgiftung

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Entzündungen/Antibiotika

  • Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:105-25. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Menon VP, Sudheer AR.
  • Phytomedicine. 2013 Jun 15;20(8-9):714-8. Synergistic antibacterial effect of curcumin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Mun SH, Joung DK, Kim YS, Kang OH, Kim SB, Seo YS, Kim YC, Lee DS, Shin DW, Kweon KT, Kwon DY. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711313000780
  • Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.28 No.6, November 2015. University Sains Malaysia (USM). Synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. Sin-Yeang Teow and Syed Atif Ali. http://www.pjps.pk/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/28/6/Paper-27.pdf

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu krankhafter Gefäßneubildung / Herzerkrankungen

    • Arbiser JL, Klauber N, Rohan R, et al. Curcumin is an in vivo inhibitor of angiogenesis. Mol Med 1998 Jun;4(6):376-83. 1998. PMID:7540.
    • Gururaj A, Kelakavadi M, Venkatesh D et al. Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Oct 4;297(4):934. 2002.
    • Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Feb;20(2):125-32. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.03.001. Epub 2009 May 17. Curcumin prevents human aortic smooth muscle cells migration by inhibiting of MMP-9 expression. Yu YM, Lin HC.
    • PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e108577. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108577. ECollection 2014. Oral supplementation with non-absorbable antibiotics or curcumin attenuates western diet-induced atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance in LDLR-/- mice–role of intestinal permeability and macrophage activation. Ghosh SS, Bie J, Wang J, Ghosh S.
    • Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015 Nov;73(2):369-79. doi: 10.1007/s12013-015-0612-x. Cardioprotection by Phytochemicals via Antiplatelet Effects and Metabolism Modulations. Zhang PY.
  • Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Jun 1;8(6):7247-53. eCollection 2015. Effect of curcumin on permeability of coronary artery and expression of related proteins in rat coronary atherosclerosis heart disease model. Li X, Lu Y, Sun Y, Zhang Q.
  • J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;56(4):627-35. Effect of curcumin on atherosclerosis in apoE/LDLR-double knockout mice. Olszanecki R, Jawień J, Gajda M, Mateuszuk L, Gebska A, Korabiowska M, Chłopicki S, Korbut R.
  • Chin Med J (Engl). 1999 Apr;112(4):308-11. Effects of Curcuma Longa on proliferation of cultured bovine smooth muscle cells and on expression of low density lipoprotein receptor in cells. Zhang W, Liu D, Wo X, Zhang Y, Jin M, Ding Z.
  • Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(7):974-9. Curcumin ameliorates cardiac inflammation in rats with autoimmune myocarditis. Mito S, Watanabe K, Harima M, Thandavarayan RA, Veeraveedu PT, Sukumaran V, Suzuki K, Kodama M, Aizawa Y.
  • Toxicology & Carcinogenesis Studies of Turmeric Oleoresin (Major Component 79%-85% Curcumin in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies). Technical Report Series No. 427 (1993) NIH Publication No. 93-3158
  • Quiles, J. L., Mesa, M. D., Ramírez-Tortosa, C. L., Aguilera, C. M., Battino, M., Gil, Á., & Ramírez-Tortosa, M. C. (2002). Curcuma longa extract supplementation reduces oxidative stress and attenuates aortic fatty streak development in rabbits. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 22, 1225–1231. http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/22/7/1225
  • Wongcharoen, W., & Phrommintikul, A. (2009). The protective role of curcumin in cardiovascular diseases. International Journal of Cardiology, 133(2), 145–51. (15) Yuan, H.-Y., Kuang, S.-Y., Zheng, X., Ling, H.-Y., Yang, Y.-B., Yan, P.-K., … Liao, D.-F. (2008). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167527309001132
  • Miriyala S1, Panchatcharam M, Rengarajulu P. Cardioprotective effects of curcumin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:359-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569220

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Krebs

  • Aggarwal B. Paper presented at the U.S. Defense Department’s ‘Era of Hope’ Breast Cancer Research Program meeting in Philadelphia, PA, October 5, 2005, reported in NUTRAingredients.com/Europe “Turmeric slows breast cancer spread in mice.”
  • Cruz-Correa M, Shoskes DA, Sanchez P, Zhao R, Hylind LM, Wexner SD, Giardiello FM. Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;4(8):1035-8. Epub 2006 Jun 6. PMID:16757216.
  • Dorai T, Cao YC, Dorai B, et al. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. III. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate 2001 Jun 1;47(4):293-303. 2001. PMID:16280.
  • Hidaka H, Ishiko T, Furunashi T et al. Curcumin inhibits interleukin 8 production and enhances interleukin 8 receptor expression on the cell surface: impacgt on human pancrreatic carcinoma cell growth by autocrine regulation. Cancer 2002 Sep 15;96(6):1206-14.
  • Khor TO, Keum YS, Lin W, Kim JH, Hu1 R, Shen G, Xu1 C, Gopalakrishnan A, Reddy B, Zheng X, Conney AH, Kong AN. Combined Inhibitory Effects of Curcumin and Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on the Growth of Human PC-3 Prostate Xenografts in Immunodeficient Mice. Cancer Research. 2006 Jan; 66(2): 613-621. 2006. PMID:16423986.
  • Nagabhushan M, Bhide SV. Curcumin as an inhibitor of cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Apr;11(2):192-8. 1992. PMID:1578097.
  • Nagabhushan M. Research presented at the Children with Leukaemia Conference, September 2004.
  • Nakamura K, Yasunaga Y, Segawa T et al. Curcumin down-regulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol 2002 Oct;21(4):825-30. 2002.
  • Shishodia S, Amin HM, Lai R, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive NF-kappaB activation, induces G1/S arrest, suppresses proliferation, and induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Sep 1;70(5):700-13. 2005. PMID:16023083.
  • Mol Cancer Ther. 2009 Aug;8(8):2348-55. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0290. Epub 2009 Aug 11. Curcumin blocks prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis through direct inhibition of the microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1. Koeberle A, Northoff H, Werz O.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Lebererkrankungen

  • Asai A, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T. Antioxidative effects of turmeric, rosemary and capsicum extracts on membrane phospholipid peroxidation and liver lipid metabolism in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Dec;63(12):2118-22. 1999. PMID:7550.
  • Deshpande UR, Gadre SG, Raste AS, et al. Protective effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1998 Jun;36(6):573-7. 1998. PMID:7740.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Mukoviszidose

  • Egan ME, Pearson M, Weiner SA, Rajendran V, Rubin D, Glockner-Pagel J, Canny S, Du K, Lukacs GL, Caplan MJ. Curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, corrects cystic fibrosis defects. Science. 2004 Apr 23;304(5670):600-2. 2004. PMID:15105504.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Multipler Sklerose

  • Natarajan C, Bright JJ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists inhibit experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by blocking IL-2 prodeuction, IL-12 signaling and Th1 differentiation. Genes Immun 2002 Apr;3(2):59-70. 2002.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Rheuma, Arthritis, Arthrose und Gicht

  • Chandran, B. and Goel, A. (2012), A Randomized, Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis. Phytother. Res., 26: 1719–1725. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4639
  • Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 Oct 20;221(2-3):381-4. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Huang HC, Jan TR, Yeh SF.

    Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Stoffwechsel

  • Ejaz, A., Wu, D., Kwan, P.W., Meydani, M. 2009. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on angiogenesis and obesity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. Journal of Nutrition. 139: 919-925
  • Bradford, P. G. (2013), Curcumin and obesity. BioFactors, 39: 78–87. doi: 10.1002/ biof.1074
  • Fan X, Zhang C, Liu DB, Yan J, Liang HP. (2013) The clinical applications of curcumin: current state and the future.

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Depression

  • Lopresti AL, Maes M, Meddens MJ, Maker GL, Arnoldussen E, Drummond PD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Jan;25(1):38-50. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.11.015. Epub 2014 Dec 5. Kurkumin and major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the potential of peripheral biomarkers to predict treatment response and antidepressant mechanisms of change. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25523883
  • Kanchanatawan B1, Tangwongchai S, Sughondhabhirom A, Suppapitiporn S, Hemrunrojn S, Carvalho AF, Maes M Neurotox Res. 2018 Jan 11. doi: 10.1007/s12640-017-9860-4.
    Add-on treatment with Kurkumin has antidepressive effects in Thai patients with major Depression. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29327213

Studien, die keinen externen Link haben, finden Sie über die Google-Suche unter Angabe des Namens, der Referenz und des Autors

Mehr Informationen zu Kurkuma…

Wissenschaftliche Studien zu Ingwer

  • „The Inhibitory Effect of Ginger Extract on Ovarian Cancer Cell Line; Application of Systems Biology.“ von Pashaei-Asl R., Pashaei-Asl F., Mostafa Gharabaghi P., Khodadadi K., Ebrahimi M., Ebrahimie E., Pashaiasl M.; Adv Pharm Bull. 2017 Jun;7(2):241-249. doi: 10.15171/apb.2017.029. Epub 2017 Jun 30.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5527238/
  • „Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial“ von Chen X. Chen, Bruce Barrett, Kristine L. Kwekkeboom; BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12: 92. Published online 2012 Jul 10. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-92.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518208/
  • „Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism“ von Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah, Harish Nayaka Mysore Annaiah, and Shylaja M. Dharmesh; Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 249487. Published online 2011 Jun 23. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep060.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136331/
  • „Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis.“ von Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Nov;44(11):2531-8.: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11710709

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